Blood Cancer

Blood cancer

Hematology Doctor in Pune

Blood cancer is an umbrella term for cancers that affect the blood, bone marrow and lymphatic system. Unfortunately, blood cancer affects a large number of people. There are three main groups of blood cancer: leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma. Some types are more common than others.

Types of Leukemia

    1. Acute Myeloid Leukemia(AML)
      Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), also known as acute myelogenous leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute granulocytic leukemia or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, is a fast-growing form of cancer of the blood and bone marrow.
    2. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia(ALL)
      It is a cancer that starts from the early version of white blood cells called lymphocytes in the bone marrow.Leukemia cells usually invade the blood fairly quickly. They can then spread to other parts of the body, including the lymph nodes, liver, spleen, central nervous system  and testicles (in males).
    3.  Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia(ALL)
      Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a typically slow-growing cancer which begins in lymphocytes in the bone marrow and extends into the blood. It can also spread to lymph nodes and organs such as the liver and spleen.CLL develops when too many abnormal lymphocytes grow, crowding out normal blood cells and making it difficult for the body to fight infection.

4.Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), also known as chronic myelogenous leukemia, is a type of cancer that starts in certain blood-forming cells of the bone marrow. In CML, a genetic change takes place in an early version of myeloid cells – the cells that make red blood cells, platelets, and most types of white blood cells. This change forms an abnormal gene called BCR-ABL, which turns the cell into a CML cell. The leukemia cells grow and divide, building up in the bone marrow and spilling over into the blood.

Lymphoma is a group of blood cell tumors that develop from lymphatic cells. The name often refers to just the cancerous ones rather than all such tumors.Signs and symptoms may include enlarged lymph nodes, fever, drenching sweats, unintended weight loss, itching, and feeling tired. The enlarged lymph nodes are usually painless.
Hodgkin lymphoma
Hodgkin lymphoma is one of the most commonly known types of lymphoma,[citation needed] and differs from other forms of lymphoma in its prognosis and several pathological characteristics. A division into Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas is used in several of the older classification systems. A Hodgkin lymphoma is marked by the presence of a type of cell called the Reed–Sternberg cell.
Non-Hodgkin lymphomas
Non-Hodgkin lymphomas, which are defined as being all lymphomas except Hodgkin lymphoma, are more common than Hodgkin lymphoma. A wide variety of lymphomas are in this class, and the causes, the types of cells involved, and the prognosis vary by type. The incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma increases with age. It is further divided into several subtypes.

6.Multiple myeloma
Multiple myeloma is a cancer formed by malignant plasma cells. Normal plasma cells are found in the bone marrow and are an important part of the immune system.The immune system is made up of several types of cells that work together to fight infections and other diseases. Lymphocytes (lymph cells) are the main cell type of the immune system. The major types of lymphocytes are T cells and B cells. When B cells respond to an infection, they mature and change into plasma cells. Plasma cells make the antibodies that help the body attack and kill germs. Lymphocytes are in many areas of the body, such as lymph nodes, the bone marrow, the intestines, and the bloodstream. Plasma cells, however, are mainly found in the bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside some hollow bones

7.Myeloproliferative Neoplasms
Myeloproliferative Neoplasms previously called myeloproliferative Disorders (MPD), are a group of diseases that affect normal blood cell production in the bone marrow. In this case the bone marrow causes an overproduction of one or more blood cell types (red cells, white cells or platelets). Complications arise over time due to the abnormally high number of blood cells that accumulate in the bone marrow and in the circulating blood.

Polycythaemia Rubra Vera
Polycythaemia (Rubra) Vera, also known as primary polycythaemia vera, is a disorder where too many red cells are produced in the bone marrow, without any identifiable cause. These cells accumulate in the bone marrow and in the blood stream where they increase the blood volume and cause the blood to become thicker, or more ‘viscous’ than normal. In many people with polycythaemia vera, too many platelets and white cells are also produced.

In myelofibrosis, chemicals released by high numbers of platelets and abnormal megakaryocytes (platelet forming cells) over-stimulate the fibroblasts. This results in the overgrowth of thick coarse fibres in the bone marrow, which gradually replace normal bone marrow tissue. Over time this destroys the normal bone marrow environment, preventing the production of adequate numbers of red cells, white cells and platelets. This results in anaemia, low platelet counts and the production of blood cells in areas outside the bone marrow for example in the spleen and liver, which become enlarged as a result.

8.Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Myelodysplastic Syndromes are a group of diverse bone marrow disorders in which the bone marrow does not produce enough healthy blood cells. MDS is often referred to as a “bone marrow failure disorder”. MDS is primarily a disease of the elderly (most patients are older than age 65), but MDS can affect younger patients as well. To help you better understand MDS, it might be helpful to first consider some basics about bone marrow and blood.